Sunday, November 28, 2010

Subway to New Jersey

We heard on November 16 that the Mayor of New York, the Governor of New York state, and Manhattan real estate interests were all considering the idea of extending the Flushing Line to New Jersey.

This isn't new. For eighty years the east-west tunnel, pointing to New Jersey from its end at Eighth Avenue and 41st St, has sparked the imaginations of railfans and other dreamers. Although the tunnel extension now under construction points down Eleventh Ave to Chelsea Piers, the same thought tickles the brain: why stop there? It's even more tempting right now, while usable tunnel boring equipment is still there at the end of the works.

As the New York Times article put it,
It would extend the New York City subway outside the city for the first time, giving New Jersey commuters direct access to Times Square, Grand Central Terminal and Queens, and to almost every line in the system.
With Governor Christie's recent cancellation of the ARC project still a sore point, the subway extension is being promoted as an alternative way to increase trans-Hudson capacity.

But would it work?

Existing conditions, showing the unfinished subway tunnel to its end. From Google Maps.


Subway lines as a mode of travel fall between the bus line with stops every two or three blocks and the railroad with stops every one or two miles. Following the typical model, an extension of the Flushing Line would look something like this:

- Add the proposed station at Tenth Avenue (41st St).
- 34th St Javits Center station being built.
- Cross the Hudson in a direct path, reaching land at about 9th St (Hoboken).
- Station at Washington St (Hoboken), near the Stevens Institute.
- Station at the cliff, for Palisades Ave (Jersey City) and for transfer to the Hudson Bergen Light Rail at the 9th St / Congress St station.
- Station for Central Ave and Summit Ave (Jersey City).

That's about 2.3 miles from the current end of tunnel at 24th St and Eleventh Ave. For local traffic it would make sense to continue by turning south down the spine of Jersey City, probably under Summit Ave, which would bring it in a few stops to Journal Square.

This would obviously not be an alternative to ARC at all. It would just be the normal type of routing for a subway line.

An extended subway line, with alternatives to Secaucus or Journal Square.

Would it be busy? Yes, I am sure it would. Those parts of Hoboken and Jersey City are densely built urban areas now, and with the new subway they would be ripe for development with taller structures, ruled out now by the capacity of the narrow street system. It would please real estate interests in New Jersey but I don't see how much New York would get out of it.

But after all, the assignment is to go to Secaucus. So continue west, emerge from the hill, and jump across a mile and a half of meadows to Secaucus station. There would be about five stations between Secaucus and Times Square. Travel between local points and both ends would be greatly improved, but for through traffic between New Jersey trains and the east side of Manhattan, it would be slow.

Why do I put up this straw man? Just to show that the plan isn't exactly for a subway extension. Just to show how a subway line would normally be routed and how close stops would normally be.


I think the concept is just to go straight to Secaucus and forget the rest of Hudson County. Times Square to Secaucus with one stop at the prime Manhattan real estate at Hudson Yards.

Just go to Secaucus.

There was some comment about routing via Hoboken, but it wasn't clear whether that meant running to Hoboken Terminal (as some reporters assumed) or just passing under Hoboken. Running via the terminal would add at least two miles to the project.

The concept assumes that Secaucus is the right place to go. I am not so sure. Let's think about where New Jersey Transit trains could go, without ARC. And let's really think about the subway going to Hoboken Terminal and Secaucus.


I haven't seen anything about New Jersey Transit train routings under the new plan. Maybe it's too soon. We can speculate.

The ARC project planned to push about 28 trains an hour through the new pair of tracks. Lines with no Penn Station service would finally get trains to New York, and lines with Penn Station service would get more trains. Reality check: there's a lot more to that than building the tunnel and terminal.

New Jersey Transit official map.


The lines with New York service have already loaded to capacity the two-track "high line" from Kearny to the tunnel entrance. The ARC plan began at Secaucus, but two additional tracks would need to start three miles west of there, and Portal Bridge over the Hackensack would have to be replaced. Governor Christie objected that this expense was not included in ARC funding from the federal government or the Port Authority, even though it would be an integral part of the project. He was right about that.

How will capacity of these lines be increased without ARC?

Additional trains could go to Hoboken. If ARC was going to take 28 trains an hour with a two-track main line, what are the possibilities at Hoboken with its four-track main line and 17 station tracks? Its current peak service is only 23 an hour.

PATH could not possibly support that many more riders. But adding the Flushing Line at Hoboken would triple capacity to Midtown. Fewer than half the peak trains at Hoboken PATH go to 33rd St (the rest go to World Trade Center). Add the full capacity of the subway line.

The terminal itself would need substantial improvements to handle twice the current foot traffic.


The routes without service to New York are all diesel powered.  ARC publicity promised their riders through service with greatly shortened travel time.

ARC however did not include a solution to the power question, and it is a much bigger deal than adding tracks from Kearny to Secaucus. There are about 98 miles of unelectrified route: 28 to Spring Valley, 43 to Suffern by two routes, and 27 to Raritan. Ideally wire would be put up. If this very ambitious project was going to be done in time for ARC, it should have been started already.

The alternative is to develop a practical dual-powered locomotive, something that's been worked on from time to time since the 1950s without ever achieving a totally satisfactory product.

The power question needed to be solved, one way or another, or the trains would not go into the tunnel and the travel time savings would not be achieved. Governor Christie didn't even mention this in his rejection of ARC.

Three of these four routes stop at both Secaucus and Hoboken: Pascack Valley (3 peak hour trains), and Main and Bergen (8 peak hour trains combined). The Raritan Valley Line (4 peak hour trains) ends at Newark Penn, reaching neither Secaucus nor Hoboken.


If Hoboken Terminal can be redesigned to handle ARC-like levels of train traffic, it looks to me like it's a better target for the Flushing subway extension. It wouldn't need to go to Secaucus at all.

Just go to Hoboken Terminal.

Step back. If we don't use Hoboken, how do we increase New Jersey Transit train service?

Where would the additional trains go? The implied answer is Secaucus.

For the Penn Station lines and the diesel-powered Raritan Valley Line, we'd need to add two tracks from Kearny. And then what? The additional trains end at a new terminal station? For the Hoboken diesel lines, would we run extra trains terminating at Secaucus at another new terminal station? These seem like weird solutions.

On the other hand, if all lines have good service to Hoboken:

- The extra tracks from Kearny to Secaucus are not required.
- New platforms and tracks at Secaucus are not required.
- The subway extension can be much shorter, and open sooner.

We do need to substantially upgrade Hoboken Terminal. In the map image above I have the subway crossing the terminal tracks at their west end, with the idea of providing a second access point for every platform at that end.

The approach lines to Hoboken also need to be optimized to maintain more frequent service, but the space is there so that should be possible.

I imagine the number of riders transferring at Secaucus for Penn Station would drop significantly with a more frequent and multi-homed New York connection available at Hoboken. Riders between New Jersey points would probably still save time by not going via Hoboken provided good connections are available at Secaucus. I have not thought through the impact on Secaucus. It would be a political embarrassment to close the station.


None of this means we should not also add two more tracks running to Penn Station.


I have saved for last a problem with the subway that is given little attention.

Images from of Fifth Ave station and Grand Central station.

The three old stations at Times Square, Fifth Avenue, and Grand Central each have just a single island platform between the tracks. The only reason this plan works now is that the Flushing Line has one-way peak traffic, a rarity on the subway. One track at a time has a rush hour load. It's a very efficient use of platform space.

The extension to New Jersey will add a rush hour load to the other track. A second platform will probably be required at all three stations.

Grand Central is about 80 feet below street level in an arched rock tunnel built in the 1890s. There is precedent in the subway itself for adding a side platform to an arched rock tunnel— 191st St— but it is difficult work and will require access tunnels up to mezzanine level. The image above shows the center of the platform. It widens toward the west end.

Fifth Ave is less deep but located under the south side and sidewalk of 42nd St to avoid having the station underpin the shuttle (S) subway. Its narrow profile helped fit it into available space. A side platform would be under either Bryant Park or the shuttle. I think this is the least busy of the three.

Times Square had to cross deep under the Broadway (N Q R) and Seventh Ave (1 2 3) subways, and fit within the narrow limits of 41st St. The routing off 42nd St into 41st (it cuts diagonally under Bryant Park) was probably done to avoid, once again, directly underpinning the shuttle. A side platform would be under the sidewalk at least and might need to cross the building line. The platform is wider than the one at Fifth Ave and has more stairways, and traffic studies may show that it is adequate.

Those three stations might end up killing the plan. For example the M T A vetoed a previous proposal to extend the Flushing line sometime in the 1990s. The New York Times, Nov 23, reported:
Back then, the transportation authority argued that the subway station at Grand Central Terminal was at full capacity and could not practically be expanded to accommodate thousands of commuters from across the Hudson.


Postscript 1:

I wrote all this and then found another similar plan here to run the subway to Hoboken Terminal. But the writer has changed his mind this past week:
Digging to Secaucus makes more sense than going to Jersey City. Secaucus is already a giant transfer station for trains that don’t go into Manhattan.
I disagree. It is a transfer station only for trains that also go to Hoboken. Going to Secaucus would make the subway extension miles longer, and New Jersey Transit trains that now end at Hoboken or Newark Penn would need to go to Secaucus instead to take advantage. Essentially you'd be building a new Hoboken Terminal in the middle of nowhere, and begging construction of a new transit line from there to reach Jersey City and lower Manhattan. I don't see any advantage to it.

Postscript 2:

And then I saw Bob Prevedi in The Record reading my mind on November 24:
To truly double capacity and make full use of the No. 7 line would require extending two tracks for NJ Transit trains and building a better terminal at Secaucus to allow more service between Newark to Secaucus – otherwise the No. 7 Subway extension would not realize the increase in capacity that everyone is looking for.

On the other hand, Hoboken Terminal does have the facilities already to handle more NJ Transit trains and riders – which makes it the logical location for the No. 7 line to end up in. [...]

The only real issue would be platform crowding at Grand Central, which would require more stairs to be constructed. [...]

By making the most use of our existing resources of the Hoboken Terminal and the No. 7 subway, we minimize the capital expense by digging only two miles instead of four to Secaucus and another four to Newark, and meet the growing needs on both sides of the Hudson River.

Great minds... what can I say?

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Riding the El - 3 - Sixth Avenue

Last time around.

91-7 (detail). West Broadway, looking north from Bleecker St, 1939.

The Sixth Avenue El closed on December 4, 1938. The timing was odd. The replacement Sixth Avenue Subway was not ready to open for another two years. What was the rush? But Mayor La Guardia (in office 1934-1945) had been pushing for the elimination of the els, and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company had been waiting since 1922 for an opportunity to drop the biggest money-loser route in the system— the Sixth Avenue El. So the Authorities were prepared to leave Sixth Avenue with no rapid transit for two years.

(Urban legend is that the scrap metal was sold to Japan and came back as bullets. Japanese industry really was an important market for American scrap metal in the 1930s. But the el was built in 1876-1878, and like other bridges of its day, it was made of iron, not steel. Nobody makes iron bullets. I'll admit the rails were steel, but there was a domestic market for rails, and the IRT may have even kept them for reuse. I just don't know.)

Let's take a walk around downtown.

82-3. Cortlandt St looking east to Trinity Place.

On the left is Hudson Terminal, with the marquee entrance to the "Hudson Tunnels", that is the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad, now known as PATH. This whole location is now within the World Trade Center site. Ahead is the el with a "SIXTH AVE LINE" sign.

82-5. Church St looking north from Barclay St.

A block ahead is the Park Place station, and a block beyond that is the Murray St curve where the el ran one block west to West Broadway.

The el ended up way over on one side because Church St was originally much narrower. The buildings along the left side were demolished around 1928 to provide enough width to build the Independent Subway. The el was not relocated since the subway was going to replace it.

86-5. Closed entrance.

I will be amazed if someone tells me where this is. This is a typical Sixth Ave stairway like those at many stations. But I can tell you that the play The American Way starring Frederic March ran from January to June 1939.

86-6. El column.

Just one column.

I will not be amazed if someone tells me where this is. I mean, just look at that huge building. But I've spent about an hour looking at new and old photos of Manhattan and I have not able to identify it. I feel so dumb.

Nice bus.

88-8. Eighth Ave looking north from 52nd St.

"Let's serve Piels" says the happy woman on the phone. That brings back childhood memories. No, not being served the Piels Brothers' best! I mean the radio spots and the animated television commercials with Bert and Harry Piels, voiced by Bob and Ray, telling us about their beer. You don't see cartoons promoting alcohol any more.

90-1. Trinity Place.

This type of structure with three tracks was found only in Trinity Place between Cortlandt St and Morris St, so I figure that's where this is.

Demolition of the el was done in sections, presenting, temporarily, scenes like this where intact structure meets open air.

The cables over the sidewalk on the right connect to an electrical substation that fed 600 volts DC power to the el from 1902 to the end. (Before that, the el was operated with small steam locomotives.)

90-2. Sixth Avenue.

You can see how different the Sixth Ave side truss structure was. The columns supported the trusses that ran the length of the structure, and they in turn supported cross beams.

A few businesses still used horse-drawn wagons in 1939.

90-7. Sixth Ave looking north at 34th St.

Minus the el, this is still a familiar scene today to many New Yorkers. Macy's is at the left edge of the image.

The temporary structure in the center of the image was part of the construction works for the Sixth Ave Subway, which had been complicated by the need to support the el while building directly under it.

91-4. Possibly West Broadway looking toward Grand St.

The structure on both sides of this station is already gone.

I'm not sure of the location. It's two tracks and not on Sixth Ave. Only Grand St and Chambers St fit the bill, and Chambers St was not a simple four-points like this seems to be.


Interborough Rapid Transit adopted the slogan "Ride on the Open Air Elevated" in 1923 to improve declining ridership on the elevated lines. It helped only temporarily.

91-6. West Broadway looking north at Bleecker St.

All that's left are some cut columns. See also the detail of 91-7 at the top of this page.

There are so many wonderful things on view. I love the elaborate support for that little streetlight, and the cut-out "one-way" arrow. And, "Read The Sun".

This part of West Broadway is now called La Guardia Place, and all the buildings on the right were removed years ago to make way for modern apartment towers called Washington Square Village. But the corner building on the left with the Trio Lunch Bar is still there.

91-8. West Broadway looking south at Bleecker St.

This is the same corner, looking the other way. Down the block there are a few cross beams over the street. The news vendor (formerly) under the stairs has not yet given up.

93-1. Sixth Ave looking north at 32nd St.

I would have thought the way to do this is to remove the station houses and platforms first, and then the main structure, but at least in this one case, they did the opposite. It's the downtown side of the 33rd St station.  Gimbel's is on the left.

That's the end of the Sixth Ave El, and the last of the '116' size film negatives I was given.

But there are still a whole pile of '120' negatives.

Sunday, November 14, 2010

Riding the El - 2 - Sixth Avenue


More images from the collection of negatives I described last time. We're going to look at '116' format film rolls 79 and 81. There are missing rolls and neither one of these has the complete eight exposures. Each image is on a separate piece, which I have arranged by the numbers handwritten on the top border.

The first four images here are at one location, the Eighth Avenue station in 53rd Street. The Sixth Avenue El came down Columbus and Ninth Avenues on the Upper West Side, and turned into 53rd St to run across to Sixth Avenue. The only station between 59th St (Ninth Ave) and 50th St (Sixth Ave) was at Eighth Ave (53rd St).

These are the first images I have ever seen of the station. It was over a narrow Manhattan cross street, but they somehow fitted three tracks and two platforms between the buildings.

79-7. Downtown end (that is, the eastern end) of the downtown platform at Eighth Ave.

The tall building in the rear has a sign for THE GUILD THEATRE, which is on 52nd St between Broadway and Eighth Ave. It's now called the August Wilson Theater. Jersey Boys has been playing there for a while. The building beyond it with the center tower, across the street, is now the Neil Simon Theater.

Two ads for whisky— Old Drum and Three Feathers (not Four Feathers!)— and two for candy— Butterfingers and Oh! Henry. I can't make out the one on the right with the cartoon figure.

Notice the man with camera. The current series of images may document the last days of the Sixth Avenue El before it closed in 1938.

The small sign next to him reads "53&8TH".

81-2. 53rd St looking west from Eighth Ave station.

We're at the west end of the downtown platform. In the distance a train rounds the curve at Ninth Ave. Above it is an upper deck carrying the Ninth Avenue El express track over the junction.

81-3. 53rd St station, uptown side.

This is from almost the same location as 81-2, but the photographer has turned around and walked in a little ways from the end of the platform.

The portion of the station with canopies is the original length of the 1878 station. The so-called Swiss chalet stationhouse was typical of stations on the Sixth Avenue El. This station was centered over Eighth Avenue. The station name signs call it 53RD ST 8TH AVE.

The el occupies so much of the street width that you could almost climb into an apartment window from the platform.

81-4. 53rd St looking east from Eighth Ave station, from a train front window.

Similar to 76-1, last time.

81-5. 50th St station, uptown side seen from the downtown side.

Similar to 76-2, last time. I don't think it's the same day. This shot is in brighter sunlight.

The 1870s style of the el meets the 1930s style of the Rockefeller Center building.

77-2. 33rd St station, looking uptown from the uptown side. I omitted this one from part 1, because it's so dark. It's atmospheric though, and the exposure shows buildings in the distance that are obscured by the lighter exposure of the next image.

81-6. 33rd St station, looking uptown from the uptown side.

That's Gimbel's department store on the left. The same building is now the Manhattan Mall. The next one up was Saks 34th St. Technically the same building, though it was refaced as Korvette's, and then completely gutted and refaced again (an architectural "grandfather's axe"?), it is now Herald Center.

The original platforms were not directly opposite each other, but rather both were located as close as possible to the diagonal Broadway crossing. The downtown side has lost its chalet roof to accommodate the overhead footbridge that led into Gimbel's.

The railway company could not get approval to build the station over Broadway, so the obvious site at 34th St, a wide cross street, was not possible. Even in the 1870s popular sentiment was very protective of Broadway. Crossing it at all was a point of contention.

81-7. Rector St station, looking downtown from the uptown side.

Very similar to 76-7. You can see a train approaching around the reverse curve from Greenwich St.

This time we will continue south one more station.

The streets are a little confusing downtown, so here's an aerial photograph from 1924, snagged from the city's NY City Map web site. The Rector St station in Trinity Place (81-7) is outlined near upper right. You can even make out the overhead footbridge. Notice the similar Ninth Ave El station over Greenwich St (not outlined) to the left.

Rector St was originally the downtown terminal, and the end of structure was at Morris St. After the Manhattan els were consolidated under one management, a connector was built to the Ninth Avenue El in Greenwich St. In the aerial photo you can see the reverse curve that the train in 81-7 is negotiating.

The trouble was that the Sixth Avenue El was at a higher elevation, so for another block the two els ran side by side as a four-track structure in Greenwich St, as the Sixth Ave came downgrade. They came together barely in time to enter a station at Battery Place, outlined near the bottom of the image.

81-8. Battery Place station, looking uptown into Greenwich St.

Sixth Ave and Ninth Ave trains merged right here at the north end of the station. Yes in the station. The downtown Sixth Ave track doesn't even come alongside the platform (left) for at least a car length. Maybe you couldn't get on or off the last car here.

Look at those little old buildings along the west side of Greenwich St, roughly a hundred years old at the time of this photograph. They must have witnessed Charles Harvey's experimental first section of elevated railway, a lightweight structure for cable cars that he built over the east curb line in 1866. The buildings are all gone now, replaced by the entrance to the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel.

79-8. Looking north in Columbus Avenue, crossing 106th St.

The train in the distance is rounding the curve at 110th St, where the el cut over to Eighth Avenue to continue up to 155th St. The building in the center of the image is still there, at the northeast corner of Columbus and 106th.

I know this one seems out of nowhere after where we've been, but it is the next image on roll 79 after the first one on this page. So it looks as if that day the photographer got on a Sixth Ave train at the 53rd St 8th Ave station and rode up to here on it.

You know, the view everyone took was at 110th St, the 'suicide curve', where the el ran high above the street. But not this guy. He gives us the more everyday view you would see just before you got there. And for that precise reason, this is a more rare view.

I wrote almost a year ago about the tendency all of us have to take photos of special events but not ordinary life.
If you see something every day, you don't need a photograph of it. And then it's gone, or more often you're gone, gone from that place or that routine, maybe happy to be gone. Then some time later it occurs to you that something once so familiar has been taken from you, and it cannot come back.
How many countless riders took the Sixth Avenue El, as a matter of routine, until one day it was not there any more.
Long ago, it must be. I have a photograph.

More from this collection next week, but something a little different.

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Riding the El - 1 - Sixth Avenue


I hope this material is of interest ... I am very reluctant to receive any acknowledgement, and I much prefer that you alone take the credit, if any, for this particular contribution.

With this note, I received an envelope containing a collection of black and white film negatives in two sizes, '116' (image 2.5 x 4.25 inches) and possibly '105' (image 55 mm x 85mm or about 2 x 3.5 inches). Each piece has just one image on it, but they have numbers handwritten on them that appear to group them into rolls numbered 76 to 141, with gaps.

All of them document tours of the elevated railways in Manhattan in about 1938.

Here I will show the eight images of roll 76 and two of roll 77, both '116' film. This format was used in Brownie cameras and other snapshot cameras with a fixed focus and exposure. It usually had eight images per roll. The only processing I did was to choose a reasonable light-dark balance for each image.

Roll 76 documents a ride downtown on the Sixth Avenue El. The photographer left the train at a few stations to take pictures. Roll 77, three images (one very blurry), documents a ride back uptown, maybe immediately following 76. Click each image to enlarge.

76-1. 53rd St looking east between Eighth and Seventh Avenues.

The Sixth Ave El ran down Columbus and Ninth Avenues and then east on 53rd St three blocks to Sixth Avenue. The switches evident at the bottom of the image are from a third track in the vicinity of the Eighth Ave station. The point of view, the front window of a train, would have been steady only when the train was stopped at that station.

76-2. Sixth Avenue looking downtown from 50th St station. Rockefeller Center is on the left.

Pipe railings. Crook lampposts. Wood plank platform. The narrow two-track el left open sky over the sidewalks and over part of the roadway on each side.

Recent art deco buildings on the left. Some of the buildings on the right, like the one with the 'PETTIT' sign, are about as old as the el, sixty years in 1938.

I cannot identify the thin structure passing over the el in the distance.

The type of structure in Sixth Avenue was different from all the other elevated railways in New York. The primary longitudinal support was a truss along each side, which you can see past the station platform, instead of stringer beams under each rail.

76-3. Sixth Avenue looking uptown from the downtown platform of 23rd St station.

From Google Streetview I can identify the large building on the right as being on the northeast corner.

The footbridge is puzzling. An image of this station from 1878 shows that it was not original. How important was it to allow passengers to cross to the other side? Would passengers prefer to go up and over a footbridge rather than cross Sixth Avenue at street level? Someone must have thought so.

Advertising posters under the platform were only found on the el, never the subway.

77-3. Sixth Avenue looking south from the uptown platform at 8th Street station. Up ahead the el curves left into 3rd St to get to West Broadway.

The buildings along the east side of Sixth Avenue, on the left, were removed in the late 1920s to permit construction of the Independent Subway, which is wider than Sixth Avenue in the area of West 4th Street station.

Most of the buildings on the right side are still there.

76-4. West Broadway looking downtown from Franklin St station.

Google Streetview shows that the large white building on the left and the art deco building on the right are still there at Worth St, two blocks south of Franklin St.

The structure in West Broadway was more typical of Manhattan els, with the support structure below rail level. There were stretches of third track south of this point.

The vintage wooden house between the tracks has the control levers for the switches, visible through its windows. The two lampposts on the right have very different tops. One or both needed parts replaced over the years.

76-5 and 76-6. Trinity Place looking downtown from Cortlandt St station.

I was able to identify this two ways. First, in 76-5, the building a block ahead on the right, with a prominent cornice, is still standing at the southwest corner of Liberty Street. Second, in 76-6 the end of Trinity Place at Morris St is marked by the tall building straight ahead in the distance.

The els had semaphore signals to the end. They were lower quadrant signals in which a low position meant clear and a horizontal position meant stop. The double signal here shows the main or straight route over the diverging route. As you can see from the position of the switch itself, the straight route is clear.

76-7. Trinity Place looking downtown from the uptown platform at Rector Street station.

A block away is the end of Trinity Place at Morris St. Some Sixth Avenue trains terminated here, and some continued to South Ferry by going around to the right of the building seen straight ahead at Morris St.

The footbridge led into an arcade in a building on the left that led to Broadway, one block to the left, all under cover.

The under-platform ad, center, was for 'Old Drum Brand Blended Whiskey'.

76-8. Trinity Place looking uptown from Rector Street station. On the right is the graveyard behind Trinity Church (which faces Broadway, one block to the right).

I haven't scanned any more of the negatives yet. More to come!